Crianças em acolhimento institucional: um estudo sobre as práticas de cuidado à luz da teoria bioecológica do desenvolvimento humano.
Araújo, Janaina Andrade Tenório
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DescriptionThroughout their development, children are affected by adverse situations such as: family violence, extreme poverty, ill-treatment, orphanhood, abandonment, neglect, among others. In these cases, they are faced with the need of institutional refuge, where care practices and child protection, previously intended for family, are conducted by technician/caregivers, whose function is to build a scenario which allows healthy development of their welcomed. Based on this principle, this thesis analyzed care practices in different contexts of host environments, seeking their contribution to child bioecological development. The research was qualitative, carried out in eight child care institutions, in Recife and metropolitan region. Fourteen people participated in this study, among managers, caregivers and technicians. All of them were female, with at least two years of experience. All educators offered support to children from 3 to 6 years old, in institutional reception situation. The instruments used were: semi-structured interview and characterization questionnaire of the institution. Collected data were submitted to analysis of thematic content and descriptive statistics, respectively. Results allowed identification of a good technician/caregiver relationship with the children, facilitating affective attachment process; the tools used by them were considered educational, benefiting the children they received, through a strengthening of proximal relations, generating mutual trust and cohesion among the objectives of different contexts, for example: school - institution; community health services - institution. This result represents a mesosystem consistent building and quality. All institutions offered as routine: school attendance; and it was constant the use of services and equipment present in community around the institutions (health services, recreational spaces - like squares, courts and swimming pools), as well as psychological and social assistance. Educator training process periodically took place, and internal regulations were put in a position to be modified according to verified demands, through exchanges promoted by group experiences, which sought to listen and capture suggestions and constructive critical opinions. It was identified that institution routine is guided by documents and regulatory bodies; however, services are adequate according to each institution. This is due to the fact that there are no constant inspections to investigate internal procedures of the investigated host institutions. Some limitations and difficulties were identified as impediments to child development, such as: financial difficulties, precarious physical structure, lack of significant sponsorship and voluntary participation, lack of greater State participation, with quantitative and qualitative support in network assistance, as well as in employee training and remuneration. Another point to highlight is family reintegration process, hampered by blocks in family visits to children, such as: pre-established days; biannual visit by institution to original family; consent to spend weekend/holiday/vacation with relatives and/or guardians. This may result in direct interference in proximal processes, which are sustained by the reciprocity principles, balance of power, and affective relationships. In view of these results, new studies are suggested, aiming to broaden the theme due to relationship complexity that involves institution, welcomed child and technicians/caregivers.
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES