O PRONATEC como política de inclusão social e econômica para beneficiários do programa bolsa família: Um estudo de caso no IFRS – Campus Sertão
Zanelato, Elisane Roseli Ulrich
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DescriptionWith the advent of the Federal Constitution of 1988 in Brazil, social assistance was established as a right of citizenship and provided policies with an emancipatory purpose. In this context, Bolsa Família is its main program in the present and productive inclusion is one of the axes of the policy that aims to promote the economic autonomy of families through professional qualification and insertion into the world of work. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contributions of Pronatec as a public policy aimed at the productive inclusion of beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program in situations of social vulnerability in the municipalities covered by the IFRS - Campus Sertão. The research was characterized as qualitative descriptive, with a case study procedure. The subjects were the students, supervisors and demanding partners of the FIC courses offered by Pronatec in the IFRS - Campus Sertão, in the period of 2013 and 2014. For the accomplishment of the case study, the procedures and instruments used for the data collection were analysis of documents and interviews. The interviewees were chosen together with the person responsible for CRAS of the municipalities of Sertão, Estação, Getúlio Vargas, Coxilha and Sananduva. Three (3) supervisors, five (5) applicants and 12 (twelve) students graduating from Pronatec/FIC courses were interviewed. As a research tool, the semi-structured interview was chosen and the results analysis process included the content analysis technique, by Bardin (2009). The results made it possible to verify that Pronatec represented empowerment by providing access to information and knowledge, the creation of social bonds, greater community participation and the stimulation of higher education. However, the exclusion was reproduced as the schooling required for many courses (incomplete elementary education) was incompatible with their complexity. Another finding was that the inclusion in the workforce of the beneficiaries of the PBF who completed the Pronatec/FIC courses did not become a reality. It was found that the lack of proof of prior experience in the work portfolio contributed to the continued unemployment or led people to accept informal work. It lacked a public-private partnership that promoted monitoring and referral actions to generate opportunities, in addition to the serious and long recession that still plagues the country with more than 12 million unemployed. The study concludes that the limits that occurred in the implementation of Pronatec regarding the generation of social and productive inclusion do not disqualify the program that was in its first version, in which all were apprentices. Pronatec was a good program that, to be improved, in the interviewees' perception, should be continued. However, there is currently a scenario of exclusionary development with a profound deregulation of work and a return to vulnerability, even among those who have greater social protection. Even if vocational education initiatives for the segments in poverty and social vulnerability have their merits, they can not be understood outside the framework of precarious conditions of work and the reduction of workers' rights.
UNISINOS - Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos