Bactérias endofíticas associadas a duas variedades de Oryza sativa L. cultivadas na Estação Experimental do Arroz-IRGA, RS
Garcia, Taís Vargas
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DescriptionMicroorganisms living within the tissues of plants without causing visible detrimental effects of their presence are known as endophytes. The endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth in various ways: by secreting plant growth regulators, by phosphate solubilization, among others. In pursuit of environmentally sustainable agricultural practices, considerable attention has been given to the biological nitrogen fixation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate, by culture-dependent methods, the occurrence of endophytic bacteria in stems and leaves of two samples of varieties “RG 121” e “RG 900” of irrigated rice, on a conventional cropping system. Rice plants from two varieties were collected in the Estação Experimental do Arroz, from Instituto Riograndense do Arroz (EEA-IRGA), Cachoeirinha/RS, in the agricultural year 2012/2013. Plants collected in the field were submitted to surface disinfection, followed by isolation and cultivation of endophytic bacteria in semisolid, nitrogen-free, culture media: NFb (Azospirillum brasilense/A. lipoferum), JNFb (Herbaspirillum seropedicae/H. rubrisubalbicans) and LGI-P (Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus). At the end of these procedures, 190 bacterial isolates were obtained, which were grouped, according to their phenotypic characteristics, in 29 morphotypes. From this, the pattern of distribution of morphotypes in eight conditions was assessed by Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). The eight conditions were: C1 = sample (plant) 1, variety "RG 121", stems; C2 = sample 1, variety "RG 121", leaves; C3 = sample 1, variety "RG 900", stems; C4 = sample 1, variety "RG 900", leaves; C5 = sample (plant) 2, variety "RG 121", stems; C6 = sample 2, variety "RG 121", leaves; C7 = sample 2, variety "RG 900", stems; C8 = sample 2, variety "RG 900", leaves. The first two axes of DCA explained 28.5 % of the total variance of the data set - 23.9 % of explanation only by axis 1. In addition, a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed in attempt to establish which morphotypes best explain the observed differences between the conditions. Thus, the axes 1 and 2 of the PCA had a proportion of accumulated explanation corresponding to 45.61 %, being the axis 1 responsible for 25.91 % of them. Finally, according to the number of isolates obtained by phenotypic group, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H’) were calculated, which relates the richness and evenness of species (morphotypes) for each area (condition) in study. These were tested pair-to-pair by bootstrapping and permutation methods for possible significant differences. Thus, statistically different values of H' presented by some of the combinations of conditions could be related to the sample (plant), plant structure (stems and leaves) and variety, individually or together. The bacterial growth in nitrogen-free culture media, under microaerophilic conditions, implies the occurrence of biological nitrogen fixation capacity.
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