A influência do ambiente institucional nas competências de empresas multinacionais em países emergentes: o caso da Tap Manutenção e Engenharia Brasil
Paim, Clarice da Fontoura
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DescriptionThe present dissertation investigates the internationalization of firm in emerging countries from the analysis of the relation of three relevant themes for the study of international business: the theory of the internationalization of firms, the approach is based on resources and institutional approach. The importance of the institutional environment (MEYER; MUDAMBI; NARULA, 2011; DUNNING; LUNDAN, 2008; NORTH, 1993) and of resources (BARNEY, 2001; PENG, 2001) in the internationalization process has been object of recent studies. It is noted, however, that this inquires are very often discussed in the international business literature in a disconnected way, inhibiting the understanding of more contemporary phenomena, as the ones which involves the internationalization to emerging countries (FLEURY; FLEURY, 2007). The emerging countries became priorities in the investment plans of transnational companies nowadays (UNCTAD, 2009) and its peculiarities, mainly in the institutional ambit can influence the investment strategies and the conformation of the multinational firms (MEYER ET AL, 2008). Given this, the present thesis sought to analyze how the institutional environment influences the mobilization of competencies of a multinational company which make foreign direct investments in an emerging country. To reach the goal a case study was performed through a qualitative perspective RICHARDSON, ET AL, 1999; DENZIN; LINCOLN, 2006; FLICK, 2009) at TAP Engineering and Maintenance Brazil, subsidiary of TAP Group, an European company with headquarter in Lisbon, Portugal. The data collection techniques’ included semi-structured interviews and secondary data. The data were analyzed through the analysis of contents using as support of the software QSR NVivo 9 review. The results obtained allowed to identify that the economic motivation and the seek for advantages of propriety, location and internalization predominated in the decision of the company by the foreign direct investments, according to the premises of Eclectic Paradigm (DUNNING, 1988). Using the dimensions proposed by Kauffman ET AL (2010) it was identified that, although it was not a decisive factor, the quality of the institutional environment positively influenced the foreign direct investment attraction (AMAL; TOMIO; RABOCH 2010; NORTH, 1990; MUDAMBI; NAVARRA, 2002). Through the analysis of the resources reconfiguration process (Feldman, 2004) and the trajectory of the subsidiary as a path dependent phenomenon (GOLDSTONE, 1998; TORFING, 1999; DAVID, 2000; MAHONEY, 2000; HOFF, 2008), it was noticed that from the period of 2006 to 2011, TAP, as a multinational company, transferred and sought to develop new competencies in the subsidiary (RUGMAN; VERBEKE, 2001). However, cultural and regulatory aspects of the institutional environment of the local context influenced the use and exploitation of the company resources and therefore their capacities and organizational competencies. The study helps to highlight the importance of the institutional environment of emerging countries not only for the attraction of foreign direct investment, but also as an element that can influence the activation of resources and expertise of the company and gaining competitive advantage.