This study focused on determining the residual stress of SAE 52100 hard-turned steel. The objective was to evaluate and compare the effects of the cutting-edge geometry and cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and cutting depth) on the residual stresses of three different conventional inserts: S-WNGA08 0408S01020A 7025, T-WNGA08 0408T01020A 7025, and S-WNGA432S0330A 7025. Tests were performed on 60 samples of SAE 52100 hardened steel with an average hardness of 58.5 HRC. The circumferential residual stresses of the samples were measured by X-ray diffraction. A full factorial design of experiments with three factors and two levels each with two central points and a replicate was used for a statistical analysis. The most significant results were as follows: For all inserts, the measured residual stresses were compressive, which extended the tool lifespan. The residual stresses of the Type-S inserts were significantly influenced by the cutting speed and depth, and those of the Type-T insert were significantly influenced by the feed rate and cutting depth. In addition, the residual stresses of the insert 3 were more compressive than those of the other two types of inserts. In other words, residual stresses are more compressive for inserts with larger chamfer angles even as the principal residual stress profiles were all compressive. This work has also shown that it is possible to determine a significant statistical relationship between cutting forces and residual stresses, allowing force measurements to predict the residual stress without any information on process parameters.